Title : Agricultural Mechanization
Visit Count : 2605 Time(s)
Upload Date : 5/24/2016 - 6 Year(s) ago
Category : agricultural technical notes
Tuesday, May 24, 2016
Visit Count : 2605 Time(s)
Upload Date : 5/24/2016 - 6 Year(s) ago
Category : agricultural technical notes
Mechanization is defined as the art of using machineries to hasten production, accomplish task and reduce fatigue and human labor in order to produce better quality goods and services. Mechanization is useful and important as it takes place in almost every facet of human endeavor to meet required target and to boost efficiency. Agricultural mechanization is the process whereby equipments, machineries and implements are utilized to boost agricultural and food production. It is the application of machineries, equipments and implements in the day to day farm activities to increase marginal output in food production and poverty eradication. Agricultural mechanization reduces drudgery which hitherto makes it difficult for large scale food production. In order to solve the problem of drudgery and other problems associated with food production, various measures has been introduced to combat these problems through mechanization. The need to increase agricultural output of food and non-food products while at the same time improving labour productivity on-farm and in the value chains requires that agricultural manpower has access to tools, equipment and machinery to carry out farm operations efficiently from the view point of financial and capital costs as well as social and environmental costs. Farm power is determined by a combination of the source of energy (e.g. manual, or animal traction, or motorized ) and the tools and equipment utilized to carry of farm operations. To improve and maintain competitiveness and keep consumer price as low as possible, cost of production must be kept low too. One major approach to achieving this is through mechanization and effective demand for agriculture products improve and greater volumes are needed to meet local and international demand for food, feed and industrial raw materials. As national economies in developing countries diversify and grow and offer greater economic opportunities in the non-agricultural sectors, there will be a continuing need to for labour-saving mechanical technologies to supplement decreasing labour supply and off-set rising labour costs. In situations where family labour remains the main source of farm power, there is also a need to reduce labour requirement and improve labour productivity as well as total output so that any child labour and drudgery can be eliminated and generating employment for hired labour becomes possible. Thus, agricultural mechanization that improves farm power and labour as well as total productivity is not an isolated activity but is part of a complex array of interactions between numerous stakeholders both on-farm as well as in supply chains. Besides agronomic, technical, environmental and social aspects there is also an important role played by institutional aspects such as agricultural education, extension and research. The rural infrastructure, domestic supply chains and service providers, and local manufacturers and world markets in equipment and machinery are all of vital importance. The demand for sustainable mechanization and services will continue to rise naturally with a growing population's demand for food, feed and biological industrial raw materials from agriculture, particularly in view of the rural out-migration taking place and as the younger generation responds to economic opportunities in the agricultural service sectors and non-agriculture sectors, and in the growing urban centres for employment and improved quality of life. Indeed there are already labour shortages at critical stages in the cropping calendar in many developing countries in Asia and increasingly in Africa. What is now increasingly important is to encourage sustainable private sector development that can offer farmers the right choice of technology at the right price to increase agricultural productivity to support rural economic development, contribute to local and national food security, reduce post-harvest losses and promote local manufacturing of equipment and machinery.
Unified and comprehensive definition for agricultural mechanization plan
Comparison of the definitions which the research society offered with the definitions offered in text books and references show that there are common points between them. Based on those points we can define agricultural mechanization is over all scope. Those points are: practical view to mechanization, clarification of mechanization process, application of suitable machines, recognition of technologies and applying suitable methods for production, production and processing of agricultural products, continuous increase of productivity as the result of the reducing the cost of production, reduction of the losses and increase of efficiency and increase of income. The analysis of questionnaires, the results gathered from interviews lead us to logical deduction that the mechanization should improve the application and guarantees the effectiveness of the actions (improving productivity) in the total process of pre production, production stage and sell of agricultural products. Considering above, we could define the comprehensive agricultural mechanization as the selection and use of suitable technologies and required possibilities with scientific methods in economical process of production and supply of agricultural products in scope of permanent development and production system.
The challenges of agricultural mechanization development process
Challenges of agricultural mechanization development process is classified into four groups: “Social”, “economical”, “technical” and “programming and management”.
Long-term goals in agricultural mechanization development
The most important factors of long-term goals were “role of the non governmental sector in mechanization development”, “optimum usage from the resources”, “qualitative and quantitative improvement in production of agricultural machinery and agricultural production”, “improving the degree of independency in production of basic crops”, “reducing losses” and “increasing value and the value of exports”. These factors were the bases of continues improvement of productivity, which should be in accordance to the necessity of improving productivity as well as the guide of environmental conservation and permanent agricultural development.
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