Title : Animal Manures
Visit Count : 1604 Time(s)
Upload Date : 4/16/2016 - 2 Year(s) ago
Category : agricultural technical notes
Saturday, April 16, 2016
Visit Count : 1604 Time(s)
Upload Date : 4/16/2016 - 2 Year(s) ago
Category : agricultural technical notes
Manure is an excellent fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients. The values of manure and organic fertilizers in general, are often based on the relative amount of nitrogen (N), phosphoric acid (P) and potash (K) they contain. organic matter to the soil which may improve soil structure, aeration, soil moisture-holding capacity, and water infiltration. Nitrogen content in manure varies with the type of animal and feed ration. the release of available nitrogen from the complete organic compounds during manure decomposition is very gradual. This slow release of nitrogen is manure's most important asset. The nitrogen in poultry manure is in released fastest. Animal manure is a complete, natural fertilizer. Poultry and sheep manure has about twice as much nitrogen content as horse or cow manure. The amount of manure necessary for your tree will depend on the age and size of the tree. Fertilize trees in early spring so they can use the nutrients during active growth. The most common sources of manure are horses, cattle, goats, sheep, cow, rabbits and poultry.
Poultry manure
Poultry manure (chicken in particular) is the richest animal manure in N-P-K. Generally, poultry manure is highest in nitrogen content, followed by sheep, dairy and horse manure. The high nitrogen and balanced nutrients is the reason that chicken manure compost is the best kind of manure to use. Chicken manure is considered "hot" and must be composted before adding it to the garden. Otherwise, it will burn any plants it comes in contact with. Chicken manure needs to be composted and aged at least three to six months before you add it to your garden. If you are uncertain how well your chicken manure has been composted, you can wait up to 12 months to use your chicken manure compost. "Cold" manures, such as from cow and sheep, are lower in nitrogen. The best fertiliser to use is pulverised or pellets of chicken. Use the chicken manure in moderation. Always water the soil before and after applying fertilisers. Poultry manures, especially from chickens, are higher in phosphorus than other manures, which is the most important nutrient for flower and fruit development. Chicken manure is much more acidic than most manures, making it a good choice for crops that need acidic soil. It contains pathogens that might make you sick. To protect yourself, raw manure should never be used in the vegetable garden and you should always wash your hands thoroughly after working with manure. Weed seeds that will spread to your garden. If you do decide to apply raw manure, do not use it for surface applications or topdressing in already vegetated areas.
Cow manure
This type of manure is not as rich in nitrogen as many other types. Composted cow manure, can provide numerous benefits to the garden. Cow dung is high in organic materials and rich in nutrients. However, the high ammonia levels can burn plants when the fresh manure is directly applied. In addition, cow manure contains high levels of ammonia and potentially dangerous pathogens. For this reason, it’s usually recommended that it be aged or composted prior to its use as cow manure fertilizer. Composted cow manure will add generous amounts of organic matter to your soil. By mixing this compost into the soil, you can improve its moisture-holding capacity. This allows you to water less frequently, as the roots of plants can use the additional water and nutrients whenever needed. Additionally, it will improve aeration, helping to break up compacted soils. Manure, however, provides the carbon compounds (organic materials) that build soil structure something synthetic fertilizers cannot do. Composted cow manure also contains beneficial bacteria, which convert nutrients into easily accessible forms so they can be slowly released without burning tender plant roots. Heavy manures, like that of cows, should be mixed with lighter materials, such as straw or hay.
Horse manure
Horse manure is about half as rich as chicken manure, but richer in nitrogen than cow manure. And, like chicken droppings, it's considered "hot". Stable manure will have plenty of straw mixed into it and is high in nutrients. Fresh horse manure should be aged in the compost heap for three to six months. The heat produced from composting can effectively kill most of weed seeds as well as any harmful bacteria that may be present.
Sheep manure
Sheep manure, like other animal manures, is a natural slow-release fertilizer. Nutrients in sheep manure fertilizer provide adequate nourishment for a garden. It is high in both phosphorus and potassium, essential elements for optimal plant growth. One side note about sheep manure is that it has a higher potassium content than most other manures. These nutrients help plants to establish strong roots, defend against pests and grow into vibrant and productive plants. Manure from sheep fed hay and grain will be more potent than manure from animals that live on pasture.
The Advantages of Using Manure
1) Increased soil carbon and reduced atmospheric carbon levels. 2) Reduced soil erosion and runoff; it improves soil structure. 3) Increases water holding capacity. 4) Slow in action hence very difficult to over fertilize plants. 5) No risk of forming toxic build up of chemicals. 6) Renewable and eco friendly.
The Disadvantages of Using Manure
1) the main health issue is E. Coli. In recent years there have been many vegetables sold to the public which have caused the outbreaks E. Coli. 2) Manures will burn the roots of growing plants, especially chicken manure. 3) Nitrogen is very slow to release in manures. 4) Manures are very high potential for weed seeds. 5) Salt is also prevalent in manure and, over time, can build up in the soil. High levels of salt in the soil can create dry conditions and damage the roots of plants.
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