Title : Codling Moth
Visit Count : 1055 Time(s)
Upload Date : 2/13/2016 - 2 Year(s) ago
Category : Pome fruit
Saturday, February 13, 2016
Visit Count : 1055 Time(s)
Upload Date : 2/13/2016 - 2 Year(s) ago
Category : Pome fruit
Pest Name: Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella Scopoli (. (Lep: Olethreutidae)
Codling Moth originated in Asia and is the most serious pest of apple and pear worldwide

Hosts:
Codling moth prefers apple but also attacks pear, walnut, apricot, plum, peach, cherry
Economic Significance:
On apples and pears, larvae penetrate into the fruit and tunnel to center of fruit to feed on seeds, leaving holes in the fruit that are filled with reddish-brown, crumbly droppings called frass. Fruit attacked during the first generation often drops prematurely.
Morphology:
Codling moth adults are about 1/2 to 3/4 inch long with mottled gray wings that they hold tent like over their bodies
Eggs are pinhead sized, flat, oval translucent when first deposited, later turning white.
The larvae are white to light pink “worms” with a dark brown head. They are one of the few caterpillars likely to be found inside pear or apple fruit
pupa are about 1/2 inch long, pupate inside silken cocoons under bark and in other protected sites.

Biology:
Codling moth overwinters as full-grown larvae within thick, silken cocoons under loose scales of bark and in soil or debris around the base of the tree. The larvae pupate inside their cocoons in early spring and emerge as adult moths mid-March to early April. After mating, females lay eggs singly on fruits, stems, or leaves of the host. Larvae tunnel into fruit to feed on the seeds. Larval damage to fruit is characterized by entry and exit holes, rot that surrounds larval feeding areas, and frass accumulation. Mature larvae exit the fruit and create a cocoon under tree bark or in leaf litter
Cydia pomonella completes 2-4 generations per year. Adults are present in many locations from April through September.

MANAGEMENT
Sanitation:
Every week or two, beginning about six to eight weeks after bloom, check fruit on trees for signs of damage. Remove and destroy any infested fruit showing the frass-filled holes. Removing infested fruit before the larvae are old enough to crawl out and begin the next generation can be a very effective method for reducing the population.
It also is important to clean up dropped fruit as soon as possible after they fall, because dropped fruit can have larvae in them.
Monitoring with Pheromone Traps
Codling moth pheromone traps are important for monitoring flight activity of moths to help time insecticide treatments.
Monitor pheromone-treated orchards with traps carefully to help ensure that mated moths have not moved in from adjacent orchards and that the pheromone is successfully disrupting mating.
Trunk banding:
A traditional, nonchemical method for controlling codling moth is to trap mature larvae in a cardboard band as they climb the trunk seeking a place to pupate. Banding works best on smooth-barked varieties such as Red Delicious apple, which don’t provide good alternative pupation sites.
Biological control:
Although a few predators such as spiders or carabid beetles might feed on codling moth larvae or pupae, naturally occurring biological control isn’t effective. In commercial walnut and pear orchards, releases of the tiny wasp Trichogramma platneri have been used successfully to manage codling moth in combination with mating disruption or soft pesticides.
Insecticides:
Current insecticide choices include synthetic materials microbial and botanical insecticides, and petroleum oils
Select insecticides with the desired modes of action and apply them at optimal timings to coincide with key development periods. Use of pheromone trapping in combination with the degree-day model is highly recommended to accurately determine codling moth development for your location.

1-Diane Alston. 2010. Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella). Utah State University Extension and Utah Plant Pest Diagnostic Laboratory .ENT-13-06
2- F. Brunner. 1993. Codling moth. Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center Orchard Pest Management, Washington States University
3-http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu
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